Tasks

Tasks

Core.TaskType.
Task(func)

Create a Task (i.e. coroutine) to execute the given function func (which must be callable with no arguments). The task exits when this function returns.

Examples

julia> a() = sum(i for i in 1:1000);

julia> b = Task(a);

In this example, b is a runnable Task that hasn't started yet.

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Base.@taskMacro.
@task

Wrap an expression in a Task without executing it, and return the Task. This only creates a task, and does not run it.

Examples

julia> a1() = sum(i for i in 1:1000);

julia> b = @task a1();

julia> istaskstarted(b)
false

julia> schedule(b);

julia> yield();

julia> istaskdone(b)
true
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Base.@asyncMacro.
@async

Wrap an expression in a Task and add it to the local machine's scheduler queue.

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Base.@syncMacro.
@sync

Wait until all lexically-enclosed uses of @async, @spawn, @spawnat and @distributed are complete. All exceptions thrown by enclosed async operations are collected and thrown as a CompositeException.

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Base.asyncmapFunction.
asyncmap(f, c...; ntasks=0, batch_size=nothing)

Uses multiple concurrent tasks to map f over a collection (or multiple equal length collections). For multiple collection arguments, f is applied elementwise.

ntasks specifies the number of tasks to run concurrently. Depending on the length of the collections, if ntasks is unspecified, up to 100 tasks will be used for concurrent mapping.

ntasks can also be specified as a zero-arg function. In this case, the number of tasks to run in parallel is checked before processing every element and a new task started if the value of ntasks_func is less than the current number of tasks.

If batch_size is specified, the collection is processed in batch mode. f must then be a function that must accept a Vector of argument tuples and must return a vector of results. The input vector will have a length of batch_size or less.

The following examples highlight execution in different tasks by returning the objectid of the tasks in which the mapping function is executed.

First, with ntasks undefined, each element is processed in a different task.

julia> tskoid() = objectid(current_task());

julia> asyncmap(x->tskoid(), 1:5)
5-element Array{UInt64,1}:
 0x6e15e66c75c75853
 0x440f8819a1baa682
 0x9fb3eeadd0c83985
 0xebd3e35fe90d4050
 0x29efc93edce2b961

julia> length(unique(asyncmap(x->tskoid(), 1:5)))
5

With ntasks=2 all elements are processed in 2 tasks.

julia> asyncmap(x->tskoid(), 1:5; ntasks=2)
5-element Array{UInt64,1}:
 0x027ab1680df7ae94
 0xa23d2f80cd7cf157
 0x027ab1680df7ae94
 0xa23d2f80cd7cf157
 0x027ab1680df7ae94

julia> length(unique(asyncmap(x->tskoid(), 1:5; ntasks=2)))
2

With batch_size defined, the mapping function needs to be changed to accept an array of argument tuples and return an array of results. map is used in the modified mapping function to achieve this.

julia> batch_func(input) = map(x->string("args_tuple: ", x, ", element_val: ", x[1], ", task: ", tskoid()), input)
batch_func (generic function with 1 method)

julia> asyncmap(batch_func, 1:5; ntasks=2, batch_size=2)
5-element Array{String,1}:
 "args_tuple: (1,), element_val: 1, task: 9118321258196414413"
 "args_tuple: (2,), element_val: 2, task: 4904288162898683522"
 "args_tuple: (3,), element_val: 3, task: 9118321258196414413"
 "args_tuple: (4,), element_val: 4, task: 4904288162898683522"
 "args_tuple: (5,), element_val: 5, task: 9118321258196414413"
Note

Currently, all tasks in Julia are executed in a single OS thread co-operatively. Consequently, asyncmap is beneficial only when the mapping function involves any I/O - disk, network, remote worker invocation, etc.

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Base.asyncmap!Function.
asyncmap!(f, results, c...; ntasks=0, batch_size=nothing)

Like asyncmap, but stores output in results rather than returning a collection.

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Base.fetchMethod.
fetch(t::Task)

Wait for a Task to finish, then return its result value. If the task fails with an exception, the exception is propagated (re-thrown in the task that called fetch).

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Base.current_taskFunction.
current_task()

Get the currently running Task.

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Base.istaskdoneFunction.
istaskdone(t::Task) -> Bool

Determine whether a task has exited.

Examples

julia> a2() = sum(i for i in 1:1000);

julia> b = Task(a2);

julia> istaskdone(b)
false

julia> schedule(b);

julia> yield();

julia> istaskdone(b)
true
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Base.istaskstartedFunction.
istaskstarted(t::Task) -> Bool

Determine whether a task has started executing.

Examples

julia> a3() = sum(i for i in 1:1000);

julia> b = Task(a3);

julia> istaskstarted(b)
false
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task_local_storage(key)

Look up the value of a key in the current task's task-local storage.

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task_local_storage(key, value)

Assign a value to a key in the current task's task-local storage.

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task_local_storage(body, key, value)

Call the function body with a modified task-local storage, in which value is assigned to key; the previous value of key, or lack thereof, is restored afterwards. Useful for emulating dynamic scoping.

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Scheduling

Base.yieldFunction.
yield()

Switch to the scheduler to allow another scheduled task to run. A task that calls this function is still runnable, and will be restarted immediately if there are no other runnable tasks.

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yield(t::Task, arg = nothing)

A fast, unfair-scheduling version of schedule(t, arg); yield() which immediately yields to t before calling the scheduler.

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Base.yieldtoFunction.
yieldto(t::Task, arg = nothing)

Switch to the given task. The first time a task is switched to, the task's function is called with no arguments. On subsequent switches, arg is returned from the task's last call to yieldto. This is a low-level call that only switches tasks, not considering states or scheduling in any way. Its use is discouraged.

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Base.sleepFunction.
sleep(seconds)

Block the current task for a specified number of seconds. The minimum sleep time is 1 millisecond or input of 0.001.

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Base.waitFunction.

Special note for Threads.Condition:

The caller must be holding the lock that owns c before calling this method. The calling task will be blocked until some other task wakes it, usually by calling notify` on the same Condition object. The lock will be atomically released when blocking (even if it was locked recursively), and will be reacquired before returning.

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wait([x])

Block the current task until some event occurs, depending on the type of the argument:

  • Channel: Wait for a value to be appended to the channel.
  • Condition: Wait for notify on a condition.
  • Process: Wait for a process or process chain to exit. The exitcode field of a process can be used to determine success or failure.
  • Task: Wait for a Task to finish. If the task fails with an exception, the exception is propagated (re-thrown in the task that called wait).
  • RawFD: Wait for changes on a file descriptor (see the FileWatching package).

If no argument is passed, the task blocks for an undefined period. A task can only be restarted by an explicit call to schedule or yieldto.

Often wait is called within a while loop to ensure a waited-for condition is met before proceeding.

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wait(r::Future)

Wait for a value to become available for the specified Future.

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wait(r::RemoteChannel, args...)

Wait for a value to become available on the specified RemoteChannel.

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Base.timedwaitFunction.
timedwait(testcb::Function, secs::Float64; pollint::Float64=0.1)

Waits until testcb returns true or for secs seconds, whichever is earlier. testcb is polled every pollint seconds.

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Base.ConditionType.
Condition()

Create an edge-triggered event source that tasks can wait for. Tasks that call wait on a Condition are suspended and queued. Tasks are woken up when notify is later called on the Condition. Edge triggering means that only tasks waiting at the time notify is called can be woken up. For level-triggered notifications, you must keep extra state to keep track of whether a notification has happened. The Channel and Threads.Event types do this, and can be used for level-triggered events.

This object is NOT thread-safe. See Threads.Condition for a thread-safe version.

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Threads.Condition([lock])

A thread-safe version of Base.Condition.

Julia 1.2

This functionality requires at least Julia 1.2.

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Base.notifyFunction.
notify(condition, val=nothing; all=true, error=false)

Wake up tasks waiting for a condition, passing them val. If all is true (the default), all waiting tasks are woken, otherwise only one is. If error is true, the passed value is raised as an exception in the woken tasks.

Return the count of tasks woken up. Return 0 if no tasks are waiting on condition.

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Base.scheduleFunction.
schedule(t::Task, [val]; error=false)

Add a Task to the scheduler's queue. This causes the task to run constantly when the system is otherwise idle, unless the task performs a blocking operation such as wait.

If a second argument val is provided, it will be passed to the task (via the return value of yieldto) when it runs again. If error is true, the value is raised as an exception in the woken task.

Examples

julia> a5() = sum(i for i in 1:1000);

julia> b = Task(a5);

julia> istaskstarted(b)
false

julia> schedule(b);

julia> yield();

julia> istaskstarted(b)
true

julia> istaskdone(b)
true
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Base.EventType.
Event()

Create a level-triggered event source. Tasks that call wait on an Event are suspended and queued until notify is called on the Event. After notify is called, the Event remains in a signaled state and tasks will no longer block when waiting for it.

Julia 1.1

This functionality requires at least Julia 1.1.

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Base.SemaphoreType.
Semaphore(sem_size)

Create a counting semaphore that allows at most sem_size acquires to be in use at any time. Each acquire must be matched with a release.

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Base.acquireFunction.
acquire(s::Semaphore)

Wait for one of the sem_size permits to be available, blocking until one can be acquired.

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Base.releaseFunction.
release(s::Semaphore)

Return one permit to the pool, possibly allowing another task to acquire it and resume execution.

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AbstractLock

Abstract supertype describing types that implement the synchronization primitives: lock, trylock, unlock, and islocked.

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Base.lockFunction.
lock(lock)

Acquire the lock when it becomes available. If the lock is already locked by a different task/thread, wait for it to become available.

Each lock must be matched by an unlock.

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Base.unlockFunction.
unlock(lock)

Releases ownership of the lock.

If this is a recursive lock which has been acquired before, decrement an internal counter and return immediately.

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Base.trylockFunction.
trylock(lock) -> Success (Boolean)

Acquire the lock if it is available, and return true if successful. If the lock is already locked by a different task/thread, return false.

Each successful trylock must be matched by an unlock.

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Base.islockedFunction.
islocked(lock) -> Status (Boolean)

Check whether the lock is held by any task/thread. This should not be used for synchronization (see instead trylock).

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ReentrantLock()

Creates a re-entrant lock for synchronizing Tasks. The same task can acquire the lock as many times as required. Each lock must be matched with an unlock.

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Base.ChannelType.
Channel{T}(sz::Int)

Constructs a Channel with an internal buffer that can hold a maximum of sz objects of type T. put! calls on a full channel block until an object is removed with take!.

Channel(0) constructs an unbuffered channel. put! blocks until a matching take! is called. And vice-versa.

Other constructors:

  • Channel(Inf): equivalent to Channel{Any}(typemax(Int))
  • Channel(sz): equivalent to Channel{Any}(sz)
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Base.put!Method.
put!(c::Channel, v)

Append an item v to the channel c. Blocks if the channel is full.

For unbuffered channels, blocks until a take! is performed by a different task.

Julia 1.1

v now gets converted to the channel's type with convert as put! is called.

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Base.take!Method.
take!(c::Channel)

Remove and return a value from a Channel. Blocks until data is available.

For unbuffered channels, blocks until a put! is performed by a different task.

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Base.isreadyMethod.
isready(c::Channel)

Determine whether a Channel has a value stored to it. Returns immediately, does not block.

For unbuffered channels returns true if there are tasks waiting on a put!.

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Base.fetchMethod.
fetch(c::Channel)

Wait for and get the first available item from the channel. Does not remove the item. fetch is unsupported on an unbuffered (0-size) channel.

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Base.closeMethod.
close(c::Channel[, excp::Exception])

Close a channel. An exception (optionally given by excp), is thrown by:

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Base.bindMethod.
bind(chnl::Channel, task::Task)

Associate the lifetime of chnl with a task. Channel chnl is automatically closed when the task terminates. Any uncaught exception in the task is propagated to all waiters on chnl.

The chnl object can be explicitly closed independent of task termination. Terminating tasks have no effect on already closed Channel objects.

When a channel is bound to multiple tasks, the first task to terminate will close the channel. When multiple channels are bound to the same task, termination of the task will close all of the bound channels.

Examples

julia> c = Channel(0);

julia> task = @async foreach(i->put!(c, i), 1:4);

julia> bind(c,task);

julia> for i in c
           @show i
       end;
i = 1
i = 2
i = 3
i = 4

julia> isopen(c)
false
julia> c = Channel(0);

julia> task = @async (put!(c,1);error("foo"));

julia> bind(c,task);

julia> take!(c)
1

julia> put!(c,1);
ERROR: foo
Stacktrace:
[...]
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